i.Each chromosome shortens and
is seen to consist of two chromatids,the
centroles begin to separate
ii.the nuclear membrane dissapears; a
forms, the chromosomes lines up across
middle of the cell and become attached to
spindle fibres at their centromeres
iii.the sister chromatids are pulled apart to
opposite ends (poles) of the cell as the
iv.A nuclear membrane forms around
each set of
chromatids, and the cell divides into two
iii.Regeneration and cell replacement
v.Response to external stimuli
i.has a neural canal for the passage of the
ii. has a neural spine which projects
ii. has a two process known as transverse
process,which project from the side of
i.Protection – the cranium and ribs protect
brain and vital organs in the chest.
ii.Shape – gives shape to the body and
you tall or short.
iii.Support – holds your vital organs in
when playing sport. The vertebral column
the body upright.
iv.Movement – muscle are attached to
which are jointed. When the muscles
the bones move.
v.Blood production – red blood cells (to
oxygen) and white blood cells (to protect
infection) are produced in the bone
i.Ball and socket joints
v.The pivot joint
5a.Carbohydrates such as bread are made
hydrogen, oxygen and carbon, and are
in the body as glucose. Glucose, derived
primarily from carbohydrates, is necessary
endurance athletes, and those who
train for extended periods of time. Thus
glucose directly helps athletes more fast
giving a bread which will pass the break
process before it turns into glucose.
i.Gather a number of food samples. Try to
wide variety: fruits, vegetables, breads,
dairy products and “junk” foods such as
ii.Put a sample of each food on a
iii.Fill the eyedropper with iodine and
drop a few
drops onto each food sample.
iv.Observe what happens to the drops of
on the food. If the food contains starch,
iodine drops will turn black. If the food
contain starch, the drops will stay the
v.Discard the samples when you are done
them. Do not let anyone eat them, as
i.Water as a Solvent
ii.Water as a Solvent
i.sex linked characters determined by a
located on only the X-chromosome are
be sex-linked.such traits show a different
of inheritance in males and females.
ii.in Co-dominance,both the alleles in the
heterozygous individual are fully
the effect of each allele is not modified by
presence of the other.
iii. is the improved or increased function
biological quality in a hybrid offspring.
i.any difference between cells, individual
organisms, or groups of organisms of any
species caused either by genetic
(genotypic variation) or by the effect of
environmental factors on the expression
genetic potentials (phenotypic variation).
i.It makes a species better adapted to the
environment and makes it a suitable
thrive in those conditions.
ii.It makes a species better able.
iii.The predator-prey relationship between
species is affected in a positive as well as
iv.It might not effect the ecosystem
it surely affects the offsprings so
v.Sex can introduce new gene
i.The variations fluctuate around an
mean of species.
ii.Direction of continuous variations is
iii.They are already present in the
i.A mean or average is absent in
ii.The direction of discontinuous
iii.Discontinuous variations are new
though similar variations might have
LITERATURE ANSWERS LOADING