1b 2c 3d 4A 5B 6a 7c 8C 9d 10A 11c 12b
13c 14c 15B 16d 17C 18C 19d 20a 21c 22A
23a 24b 25c 26B 27b 28d 29c 30c 31A
32b 33a 34a 35b 36c 37a 38c 39a 40b 41b
42a 43B 44a 45B 46B 47a 48a 49b 50a
-Aunty Ifeoma is a sister of Eugene, a
widow who takes proper care of her three
children, and her aged father.(Papa
-Although she is a catholic, still she
embraces traditional African songs, beliefs,
Her loving approach to life is Warm and
Welcome from the regimented atmosphere
of Eugene’s family. She told Jaja and Kambili
frankly that they should always follow her
-When Eugene her brother did not provide
for his aged father Papa Nnukwu because
the old man refused to be converted to
catholic, it was aunty ifeoma who took the
responsibility of Papa’s welfare. This
singular act, made Papa Nnukwu to lament
thus; “My son (Eugene) owns that house
that contain every man in Anna yet many
times I have nothing to put on my plate..
Where would I be today if my chi had not
given me a daughter (Aunty Ifeoma) ?.”
-Although aunty Ifeoma is poor, but she is
very accommodating as opposite to what is
happening at Eugene’s house at Nsukka.
-Aunty Ifeoma is a radical lecturer who
wants better conditions for the university
-Aunty Ifeoma’s name is included in the list
of disloyal lecturers compiled by professor
Okafor. When She was sacked, she did not
waste time to travel to the United States
America to secure another appointment.
-Aunty Ifeoma does not condescend when
her wealthy brother Eugene refuses to help
her on condition that she joins the Knights
of the Saint John.
-She was annoyed with Eugene when he
made Beatrice to have miscarriage by
beating and hitting her with a small table,
She counseled Beatrice to stay at Nsukka
until Eugene regrets his action. She actually
develops as the novel develops.
Children are essential aspect of African
marriage as can be seen in the marrital life
of Pokuwaa as portrayed in the novel.
-Pokuwaa was growing into womanhood
and out of the traditions, superstitions and
fetish sacrifices that control her personal
-She has married twice without being able
to bear a child. Her changing of husband
had to do with her mother and society’s
demands. She and her mother made lots of
sacrifices and prayers to the great god,
“Tono” and her ancestors for the fruit of
-Pokuwaa now married again to her third
husband (Kwadwo) on the ground of
looking for a child. She now tries to divert
her attention from her barrenness and puts
her energy into farming and building up
her home with Kwadwo. She loves her new
husband and would not want any
weakness on her part to break up the
-Kwadwo, though has another wife with
children cooperated fully with pokuwaa
and takes part in all the prayers and
sacrifices that has to do with Pokwaa
-Pokuwaa’s mother, a diehard traditionalist
believes that constant sacrifices to the gods
and ancestors will give her daughter a
-Pokuwaa’s childhood friend, korampoa,
who had a similar case of childlessness, has
been blessed with a child.
-Pokwaa’s decision to stop the rites of
purification and sacrifices brings calmness
and joy she never experienced in her life.
Her mother was furious about Pokuwaa’s
action and put the blame on Koramoa.
Poluwaa’s mother later went into
consultation with the gods and also
reported her daughter to the head of their
-Poluwaa eventually became pregnant but
she hid it for three months from her
mother, friend and husband. When she
broke the news, everybody was happy with
her good fortune after so many years of
tears and agony. Her mother was most
joyful and attributed the pregnancy to the
gods but Pokuwaa tells her, it was not
“Tano” that give the child but the almighty
-In her cultural setting, it is a taboo or a
grave misfortune for a woman to be of age
and ever aging beyond the middle age
without a child of her own and this was
the fate of Poluwaa.-In a nutshell and with
the case of pokuwaa one can see that
barrenness or childlessness in an African
marriage is full of sadness, serious agony,
loneliness, rejection and in order to search
for, a lot of rigours are involved.
Manolin also known as “The Boy” is a close
confident of Santiago, the Old man. He
learnt the art of fishing form the old man,
that is, an apprentice to the old man in the
fishing business for forty days.
-Manolin’s parent orders him to leave the
Old man which he did reluctantly.
An obedient son who desires to carry out
the will of his parents.
-He assists the man whenever he is around.
The boy makes himself available to provide
all his material needs to ensure proper
rehabilitation of the Old man.
-Manolin equally counsels the Oldman
(Santiago) not to lose hope despite the fact
that his last journey ended unsuccessful
and he atimes steals to satisty the Oldman.
Manolin is humble, innocent, reserved but
intelligent and calculative.
-No Servant can be more faithful, caring,
loving and dutiful than Mandolin (The Boy).
-In the life of Santiago (The Oldman), The
boy “Manolin” is a sort of shock absorber
who really work hard to make sure that the
Old man does not suffer in any way.
Jack’s gradual degeneration into savagery
and its effect on the boys.
Jack is a fully developed character in the
novel. He is a ruthless leader who believes
in brute and crude force. His central
motivation is to hunt, and throughout the
novel we find him always wanting to go
out on hunting expeditions.
-Jack is responsible for splitting the boys
into two groups, thereby causing division
and unnecessary acrimony on the Island.
-Physically, jack is tall and thin, red haired
and ugly. He is a little smaller than Ralph. He
is firm believer in iron discipline and
compels his boys to obey him totally. He is
arrogant, brave, boastful, unscrupulous,
and murderous. All this apart, he has a fine
-Jack is cooperative and is well disposed to
Ralph. He does not believe in any vague
tomorrow but likes to live for today, as
through there was no tomorrow. Jack is an
At the end of the novel, he is the chief of
the band of savages.
-As can be seen so far, Jack’s development
in the novel is negative.
He becomes less and admirable and even
less human as the story progresses.
-Much of Jack’s learning is used only for
self-glorification. He is, therefore, a
degenerating character, who lacks any
redeeming quality to become more human.
-His degeneracy takes him into wanting to
kill Ralph, his co-leader, who he now sees
as a threat to his absolute rule. As the story
drags to an end, Jack degenerates into
Promiscuity. He becomes highly emotional
and being ruled by superstition. He does
not give any though to doing the ‘right
thing’ instead he employs brute or savage
-Jack represents dictators who think they
can conquer and subdue the whole world.
He has a passion and pathological but for
hunting which is symptomatic of his crazy
desire to kill.
-Golding feels that all men share this desire,
and that it is responsible for man’s